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And how can I calculate reinforcement when I have special elements, for example subjected to an increase in temperature, or when it has a manufacturing defect, that is, it is 1mm larger or smaller, could you please recommend a bibliography for these topics?
Sure, generally speaking the approach here is to convert the lack of fit or temperature change into an equivalent force and apply this to the model in addition to any other external load. In the case of a member that is too long, what is the force required to compress it to the required length? In the case of the change in temperature, use the coefficient of thermal expansion to identify an axial force induced in the constrained element by the change in temperature.
A good all-round text on this general topic is ‘Matrix Structural Analysis’ by McGuire, Gallagher and Ziemian.